Physical Properties and Intermolecular Attractive Forces
Ronald W. Rinehart, CHEM 30B, Monterey Peninsula College

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I strongly hope that the extensive references on this page will not only help you learn about the nature of intermolecular forces and their effects, but will also convince you of the necessity of learning about this subject. 
If you don't effectively incorporate this knowledge into your repertoire right now, you will truly be at a loss throughout the remainder of this course.

           
You might want to download the demo version of Steve Lower's Chem1 Concept Builder by going to             http://www.chem1.com/   ; Once you have installed it, you can access it from your Start menu as follows: Start>> Programs >> Chem1 Lessons >> Run Chem1 Lessons >> Demo .  Select the last choice "States of matter, Solutions"  and from the resultant menu select "1. States of Matter" and run through the tutorials in sequence.  Use the "continue" button at the bottom to get to the next section any time the "next" link doesn't work. Some of this material is much more sophisticated than what we will need in this course, so don't be discouraged by the graphs and mathematical formulas.        

Basic Background
Matter by Fred Senese at Frostburg state U, MD:  
http://antoine.frostburg.edu/chem/senese/101/matter/index.shtml
  The nature of water by Mark Bishop at Monterey Peninsula College [need Shockwave]:  
http://www.mpcfaculty.net/mark_bishop/water.htm
            States of matter by Mark Bishop at MPC [slides 3-21]     
  http://www.mpcfaculty.net/mark_bishop/Chemistry_10.htm > PowerPoint > Chapter 2
Chime exercises from Cabrillo College
http://c4.cabrillo.edu/chem30a/exercises/Exer_1/index.html
Liquid and solid properties: help files from Virginia Tech:
http://learn.chem.vt.edu/tutorials/lsproperties/index.html
or via http://learn.chem.vt.edu/ > Help files for general chemistry > Liquid and solid properties
Physical properties: help files
from Virginia Tech:
http://learn.chem.vt.edu/tutorials/physprop/index.html
or via
http://learn.chem.vt.edu/ > Help files for general chemistry > Physical properties

I.  Classification of chemical substances
    A.  Pure substances
        1.  Elements
        2.  Compounds

    B.  Mixtures
        1.  Heterogeneous: suspensions; colloidal dispersions
        2.  Homogeneous:  solutions     
       

See "Classification of matter" by Mark Bishop [slides 3-30 and 37-43]:
http://www.mpcfaculty.net/mark_bishop/Chemistry_10.htm > PowerPoint > Chapter 3
            Solutions by Mark Bishop at MPC [slides 12-17 and 26]: 
http://www.mpcfaculty.net/mark_bishop/Chemistry_10.htm
> PowerPoint > Chapter 4
            Molecular shapes by Mark Bishop at MPC:    
http://www.mpcfaculty.net/mark_bishop/Chemistry_10.htm > PowerPoint > Chapter 12

What are miscible, immiscible, and partially miscible liquids? by Fred Senese at Frostburg State U 
http://antoine.frostburg.edu/chem/senese/101/liquids/faq/miscible-immiscible.shtml 

Solutions help page at Purdue University 
http://www.chem.purdue.edu/gchelp/solutions/index.html 
  Elements, compounds, and mixtures at Purdue University
http://www.chem.purdue.edu/gchelp/atoms/elements.html  at Purdue University

II. States of Matter

  States of matter by Mark Bishop [slides 3-21]  
 http://www.mpcfaculty.net/mark_bishop/Chemistry_10.htm > PowerPoint > Chapter 2
States of matter at Purdue University
 
http://www.chem.purdue.edu/gchelp/atoms/states.html 

       A. Solid 

 http://www.mpcfaculty.net/ron_rinehart/crystals.htm 
 http://www.mpcfaculty.net/ron_rinehart/polymers.htm 

    B. Liquid

http://www.mpcfaculty.net/mark_bishop/Chemistry_10.htm > PowerPoint > Chapter 14 by Mark Bishop
Liquids Help Page at Purdue University [frames]
What is a Liquid? > Intermolecular Forces / Properties
 
http://www.chem.purdue.edu/gchelp/liquids/index.html 

    C. Gas 

 http://www.mpcfaculty.net/mark_bishop/Chemistry_10.htm > PowerPoint > Chapter 13   by Mark Bishop
  Gases by Fred Senese at Frostburg State University
  http://antoine.frostburg.edu/chem/senese/101/gases/index.shtml  

    III.  Physical properties you may encounter at some point in organic chemistry
    [items in red are largely determined by the type and strength of the intermolecular attractive forces present]:        

boiling point heat of formation odor
brittleness heat of fusion partition coefficient
    refractive index
color heat of solution solubility in water
crystal form heat of vaporization solubility in nonpolar solvents
density or specific gravity luster specific heat
ductility malleability specific rotation
elasticity melting point surface tension
heat of combustion molecular weight  
or molar mass
viscosity

IV.  Important state and phase changes and relevant physical properties

 http://www.mpcfaculty.net/mark_bishop/Chemistry_10.htm > PowerPoint > Chapter 15 by Mark Bishop

     A. Melting [fusion] and freezing
            1. Melting pointm.p.
            2. Heat of fusion,   DHfus

    B. Boiling [vaporization] and condensation
            1. Boiling point, b.p.
            2.  Heat of vaporization,  DHvap  

    C.  Dissolution and precipitation      
            1.  "Like dissolves like"

V.  Intermolecular attractive forces, their relation to molecular structure, and their role in determining physical properties

You might want to download the demo version of Steve Lower's Chem1 Concept Builder by going to
             http://www.chem1.com/
   ; Once you have installed it, you can access it from your Start menu as follows: Start>> Programs >> Chem1 Lessons >> Run Chem1 Lessons >> Demo .  Select the last choice "States of matter, Solutions"  and from the resultant menu select "1. States of Matter" and run through the tutorials in sequence. Use the "continue" button at the bottom to get to the next section any time the "next" link doesn't work.  Some of this material is much more sophisticated than what we will need in this course, so don't be discouraged by the graphs and mathematical formulas.
PowerPoint presentation on intermolecular forces by David P. White at UNC Wilmington
provided by William Reiff at Northeastern University
http://www.chem.neu.edu/courses/reiff/download/Blb_Chpt11.ppt
Intermolecular forces by Paul Reisberg at Wellesley  http://www.wellesley.edu/Chemistry/Chem110e/Weakforces/weakFs.html
[You may have some access problems to this page with both Netscape and IE, even if you have the necessary plugins, because some of the material is for on-campus use only; nonetheless, what is generally accessible is quite worthwhile.]
by Mark Bishop at MPC:
http://www.mpcfaculty.net/mark_bishop/Chemistry_10.htm > PowerPoint > Chapter 14
 http://www.mpcfaculty.net/mark_bishop/Chemistry_10.htm > PowerPoint > Chapter 15
Polarity and Intermolecular Forces by Roberta Kleinman at Lockhaven University of PA at
http://www.lhup.edu/~rkleinma/Chem220/home.htm > Chapter Notes > CH1
Intermolecular Forces by Charles Ophardt at Elmhurst College, IL
http://www.elmhurst.edu/~chm/vchembook/160Aintermolec.html

 

   A.  Forces and their origin    

 Intermolecular Forces by Tom Bitterwolf at the University of Idaho
 
http://neon.chem.uidaho.edu/~honors/imf.html 
Intermolecular Forces by Leon L. Combs at Kennesaw State University
 http://stern.kennesaw.edu/inter/in01001.htm
[really good, written for KSU's equivalent of CHEM 30A/B]
Intermolecular forces by Michael Blaber at Florida State U
 http://wine1.sb.fsu.edu/chm1045/notes/Forces/intermol/Forces02.htm
 also accessible via 
http://wine1.sb.fsu.edu/chm1045/  > Intermolecular Forces > Intermolecular Forces
Liquids Help Page at Purdue University [frames]
What is a Liquid ? / Intermolecular Forces / Properties
 
http://www.chem.purdue.edu/gchelp/liquids/index.html 
Intermolecular forces and liquids and solids by Francis Carey at U Virginia
http://www.people.virginia.edu/~fac6q/11_01_02.pdf 
Intermolecular forces by Brenda Wojciechowski and Paul Cerpovicz at Georgia Southern University
 http://www2.gasou.edu/chemdept/general/molecule/forces.htm
Intermolecular and intramolecular forces by Gretchen Webb-Kummer at Modesto Community College
   http://virtual.yosemite.cc.ca.us/webbg/Chem101/Ch11lecture/IntermolecForces.htm 
by Charles E. Ophardt at Elmhurst College, IL
Intermolecular Forces
http://www.elmhurst.edu/~chm/vchembook/160Aintermolec.html
Molecular Polarity
http://www.elmhurst.edu/~chm/vchembook/210polarity.html
Intermolecular interactions in the gas phase by Gary L. Bertrand at U Missouri, Rolla
http://www.umr.edu/~gbert/INTERACT/intermolecular.HTM

        0.  Covalent bonding  [not an INTERmolecular force, since if two moieties are covalently joined, they're part of the same molecule!]
        1.  Ionic [electrostatic] attractions and repulsions

Ionic bonding by Tom Bitterwolf at the University of Idaho
http://neon.chem.uidaho.edu/~honors/ionbond.html  or
http://oxygen.chem.uidaho.edu/tebchem111/lecture_content/ionic1.htm

        2.  Electronegativity and dipoles: dipolar attractions

Electronegativity by Tom Bitterwolf at the University of Idaho
http://neon.chem.uidaho.edu/~honors/electneg.html
Molecular Polarity by Tom Bitterwolf at the University of Idaho
 
http://neon.chem.uidaho.edu/~honors/molpol.html   
Dipole-dipole Interactions by Tom Bitterwolf at the University of Idaho
 http://neon.chem.uidaho.edu/~honors/dipole.html   

        3.  Instantaneous dipoles, induced dipoles: London [dispersion] forces

London Forces by Tom Bitterwolf at the University of Idaho
  http://neon.chem.uidaho.edu/~honors/london.html 

        4.  Hydrogen bonding

 Hydrogen Bonding by Tom Bitterwolf at the University of Idaho
 
http://neon.chem.uidaho.edu/~honors/hydrogen.html 
and  http://tidepool.st.usm.edu/crswr/hydrogenbond.html  
The Secret Nature of Hydrogen Bonds from the American Institute of Physics
http://www.aip.org/physnews/preview/1999/h-bond/h-bond.htm
A gentle introduction to hydrogen bonding and structure in water
by Stephen Lower (retired) Simon Fraser University, BC
 http://www.chem1.com/acad/sci/aboutwater.html
Hydrogen Bonding vs. London Forces by Fred Senese at Frostburg State U 
http://antoine.frostburg.edu/chem/senese/101/liquids/faq/h-bonding-vs-london-forces.shtml 
Water and hydrogen bonds by Gordon Rule at Carnegie Mellon University
 
http://stingray.bio.cmu.edu/~web/bc/Lec/Lec02/lec02.html

   B.  Relationship of forces to physical properties and processes
        1.  Melting point
        2.  Boiling point
        3.  Solubility in water
        4.  Solubility in nonpolar solvents

Liquids Help Page at Purdue University [frames]
What is a Liquid ? / Intermolecular Forces / Properties
 
http://www.chem.purdue.edu/gchelp/liquids/index.html 

 C.   Relevance to biology and biochemistry [i.e, the second half of this course]
         1.   The role of water in life
         2.  Cell membrane formation
         3.   DNA and RNA structure and function
         4.   Protein structure and function

 

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Ronald W. Rinehart, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2006