Orbitals and VSEPR

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Atomic and Molecular Orbitals page by W.R. Salzman at U Arizona


neat Chime-viewable and manipulable orbitals 

Atomic and Molecular  Orbitals by Craig Counterman at MIT


formerly at: http://wulff.mit.edu/orbs/

really beautiful interactive pix of classic, hybridized, and molecular orbitals!! 

access is quirky at times. New URL found by MIT site search 2/11/02

Back to Orbital Central



Atomic Orbitals by David Manthey at SUNY Albany

"Orbital Central"   http://www.orbitals.com/orb/index.html

Grand Orbital Table   http://www.orbitals.com/orb/orbtable.htm

"Orbital Central"   site map   http://www.orbitals.com/map.htm

or at   http://www.albany.net/~cprimus/orb/index.html  [will redirect you to URL above]

Neat pictures of orbitals -- and orbital-drawing software you can download from "Orbital Central"  Claims to be the most extensive set of orbital pix on the web -- even has g and h orbitals!

"Download Orbital Viewer for Windows 95/98/NT 4.0/2000/ME/3.1x (3.1x requires Win32s). 690 kb. This includes a simple help file. Versions for other operating systems are available on the programs page. It is strongly recommended that Orbital Viewer be run on a Pentium computer or better. ..."

Hydrogen Orbitals from Dalhousie University


only goes up through the 3d orbitals, but nice nonetheless

Hydrogenlike Orbitals by Jim Holler at U Kentucky


spinning their way into your heart!

The Orbitron by Mark Winter at U Sheffield


the latest entry, from the creator of WebElements™ and the force behind U Shef's Chemdex, contains static pictures of orbital sets from 1s to 7p and hybrid orbitals from sp to d2sp3 along with the following for each orbital selected: animated plots of wave functions, animated plots of electron density,  "dot-density" plots of electron density (Chime required for this feature) and  plots of radial distribution functions along with the wave function equations.

Hybrid Orbital Tutorial from Colby College


really neat !   you need Macromedia Shockwave to view this. Now works in both Netscape and IE [thanks, folks].

Hybrid Orbital Pictures by Mark Bishop at Monterey Peninsula College


Chime-viewable hybrid orbitals, presented either individually or all at once, like the pair of sp orbitals seen at left 

Hybrid Orbital Flash Movies by Raymond Chang


they get mixed right before your eyes -- a final result is shown at left. Select from sp, sp2, sp3, sp3d, sp3d2, or display all at once. Have your sound turned on for the accompanying narration.

Pictures of Atomic Orbitals by Yue-Ling Wong via P.J. Brukat at the University of Florida


from 1s to the 4f group

|4,1,0>+|4,3,3> Orbital Animation

Atom in a Box by Dean Dauger 
Real-Time Visualization of the Quantum Mechanical Atomic Orbitals


the full site requires a Mac and some downloads to view, but there are a few animated pictures like that at left for us PC users

VSEPR page at UC Berkeley


Chime-viewable structures illustrating molecular geometry for each possible  situation where from two to six electron pair groups surround a central atom [default display is wireframe; I chose ball-and-stick for the picture of BrF5 at left]

VSEPR Tutorial  by Brenda Wojciechowski and Paul Cerpovicz at Georgia Southern University


they seem to prefer that you use Netscape 4.5 with Chime plugin to view this, but I had no trouble using MS IE 5.5 with Chime. Detailed text accompanies manipulable images -- and it's very colorful!

VSEPR Tutorial by Mark Winter at U Sheffield


extensive text background with step-by-step instructions and colorful static and Chime-based pictures of the results for the examples used

VSEPR Tutorial by John Nash at Purdue University



a useful Chime-based tutorial

VSEPR Tables by Fei Liu and Marcus Horne at Lebanon Valley College

Chime version:  http://www.molecules.org/VSEPR_table_c.html

Non-Chime version:  http://www.molecules.org/VSEPR_table.html

The non-Chime images are linked to enlarged animated rotating versions

Molecular Shape by Dave Woodcock at Okanagan University College


Dave shows Chime structures of a number of species, both with lone pairs [like the ICl2- ion at left, where they appear in pink] and without them, enabling you to see very clearly how electron-group geometry and overall molecular shape are related.

Introduction to Molecular Geometry by Shawn Mahmud and Carl Larson at St. Olaf College, MN


Chime images and brief text for the common molecular shapes. The pictures are beautiful, but the text commentary is substantially weaker in explanation when compared to the sites listed above. 

The Molecular Geometry Gallery 2 by Todd A Carlson at Grand Valley State University


Chime structures with toggle on/off lone pairs, as on the SF4 molecule at left

VSEPR Tutorial by Gary Bertrand at U Missouri -- Rolla


a presentation with text, frames, and noninteractive small animations

VSEPR Interactive Page by Chris Grant at the University of Oregon


a nicely-done intro with interactive Chime displays

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Last update  6 / 13 / 03